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Sportnutrition

 

 

 

Research has shown to that adapted feeding for sport people is necessary. The importance of it may not become exaggerate.

 
 

Consistency of feeding

 
 
A good feeding must contain the three basis components: carbohydrates (fuel), fats (combustion and building material) and  proteins (building material and if carbohydrates have been consumed as well as fuel). Moreover food must contain the necessary vitamins, minerals and sufficient water.
 
 

Feeding endurance sportsmen and sportswomen

 
 
Because endurance sportsmen and sportswomen consume many carbohydrates they must eat carbohydrate rich. For this reason the recommended feeding percentages for endurance sportsmen and sportswomen are 60% carbohydrates, 15% proteins and 25% fats. Too much fat and too few carbohydrates are frequently eaten. Also there can easily arise a vitamin B, iron and magnesium shortages arise, because these are involved in energy combustion. Must be watched out for an proteins shortage, because muscle mass go lost. The proteins share in the total energy value of the meal can also not too large: never more than twenty per cent. Moreover drink about three liter each day.
 
 

Feeding at injuries and sickness

 
 
At injure the body has more need for building materials. There is more demand to proteins, minerals (for example calcium at bones broken), vitamins and water. Generally the training scope will decrease as a result of which the energy need is diminish also. The feeding percentages for this reason must be adapted: carbohydrates 55%, proteins 18% and fats 27 %. A sick someone has generally little appetite. This comes be ordinary by sickness, but also because of the restricted energy usage. For this reason the food few carbohydrates and fats can contain, but more proteins, vitamins and minerals. Also the food must be easily digestible.
 
 

Some important feeding rules

 
 
Avoid sugars. These are incorporated rapidly in blood, as a result of which insulin quality increases.
Avoid hard fat.
Use half-full or even thin milk products.
Eat more fish; fish contains also less fat.
Use as snacks notes and seeds.
 
 

4 groups

 
 
For a varied and healthy diet you can use the disk of four. Take for every meal (have breakfast, lunch, dinner) from each group a product. Thus you can be combined there certainly of its that the foodstuffs in the correct manner.

Disk of four

Group 1 Bread, rises, macaroni, grains products, potatoes and pod fruit.
  Source for: starch, proteins vegetable, feeding fibres, vitamin B complex and minerals.
   
Group 2 All vegetables and fruit.
  Source for: feeding fibres and vitamin C.
   
Group 3 Milk and milk products, cheese, flesh, flesh products, chicken, fish and eggs.
  Source for: animal proteins, vitamin B complex and minerals.
   
Group 4 Margarine, halvarine and butter.
  Source for: fat, vitamin D and linol acid (margarine).
 
 

Tips for to prepare of food

 
 

During preparing of food vitamins and minerals go lost. The following rules limit that loss.

Food dark and chilly keeps.

Food rapidly washes and afterwards just cuts.

Short possible cook in small quantity water with lid on the pan.

Keep the cook water as much as possible at the meal.

Ate the food immediately after cooking.

 
 

Observations concerning some foodstuffs

 
 
Potatoes Contain 20% carbohydrates and 2% proteins and fairly much vitamin C.
Macaroni Prepared approximately equal to potatoes.
Dried peas To contain 40% up to 50% carbohydrates and 23% proteins and vitamin B.
Broad beans Little fat, much proteins, much complex carbohydrates, many fibres, much vitamin B, copper, zinc, magnesium, potassium.
Egg The egg white contains all essential amino acids.
Flesh Contain 15% up to 20% proteins, and vitamin B, iron.
Fish Also 15% up to 20% proteins, less than flesh, vitamin B, iron.
Half-full milk Contains 3.4 gr. carbohydrates, 4.9 gr. proteins and 1.5 gr. fat by 100mlth. Main source of calcium. Also vitamin B, C, A, D.
Thin yoghourt Same as milk.
Cheese Richly to proteins (up 10 to 30%), richly to fats (10 up to 25%).
Soya Contains proteins sa of high quality, little saturated acids and also good fat acids.
Paprika Particularly much vitamin C.
Broccoli Much vitamin C, many betacarotine, many fibres.
 
 

Digestion

 

 
How long it lasts before food has passed stomach.
 

0-30 minus

Glucose, honey.

30-60 minus

Water, black tea and coffee.

1-2 hours

Blank bread, milk, yoghourt, rice, thin fish.

2-3 hours

Cooked potatoes, thin flesh, vegetable, bananas.

3-4 hours

Brown bread, fruit, baked potatoes, cheese, grilled calf flesh and chicken, beefsteak.

4-5 hours

Roasted flesh, pod fruit, fat fish.

5-8 hours

Fat barge products, bacon, pig flesh, products courts in oil
 
 

Energy usage at several activities

 
 
Running
At running the energy usage per hour right is:
In kilometer speed: 1.012 kcal * speed * body weight.
In miles speed: 1.629 kcal * speed * body weight.
 
Below a table in which the energy usage per hour by kilo and pound body weight has been calculated for several speeds. In the last column the usage for someone of 60 kg (or 132 lbs) has been calculated per hour.
 
Speed/hour Usage/hour/kilo Usage/hour/pound Usage person of 60kg (or 132 lbs)/hours

5 miles

8.1 kcal  3.70 kcal 485 kcal

6 miles

9.8 kcal 4.45 kcal 580 kcal

8 miles

13.0 kcal 5.90 kcal 780 kcal

10 miles

16.3 kcal 7.40 kcal 980 kcal

12 miles

19.6 kcal 8.89 kcal 1175 kcal

8 km

8.0 kcal 3.63 kcal 480 kcal

10 km

10.0 kcal 4.54 kcal 600 kcal

11 km

11.0 kcal 4.99 kcal 660 kcal

12 km

12.0 kcal 5.44 kcal 720 kcal

15 km

15.0 kcal 6.80 kcal 900 kcal

18 km

18.0 kcal 8.17kcal 1080 kcal


Some other activities

Activity Usage/hour/kilo Usage/hour/pound Usage person of 60kg (or 132 lbs)/hours

Sleeping

0.93 kcal 0.42 kcal 56 kcal

Sitting

1.04 kcal 0.47 kcal 62 kcal

Standing

1.20 kcal 0.54 kcal 72 kcal
Walking
 2 miles/h 2.70 kcal 1.23 kcal 162 kcal
4 miles/h 5.35 kcal 2.43 kcal 321 kcal

3 km/h

2.50 kcal 1.13 kcal 150 kcal

6 km/h

5.00 kcal 2.27 kcal 300 kcal
Swimming
 quietly 4.00 kcal 1.81kcal 240 kcal
2 miles/h 12.00 kcal 5.44 kcal 720 kcal

3 km/h

11.00 kcal 5.00 kcal 660 kcal
Cycling

 10 miles/h

7.00 kcal 3.18 kcal 420 kcal

15 miles/h

10.00 kcal 4.54 kcal 600 kcal

20 miles/h

15.00 kcal 6.80 kcal 900 kcal

25 miles/h

21.00 kcal 9.53 kcal 1260 kcal

20 km/h

8.00 kcal 3.63 kcal 480 kcal
25 km/h 10.00 kcal 4.54 kcal 600 kcal

30 km/h

13.00 kcal 5.90 kcal 780 kcal

35 km/h

17.00 kcal 7.71 kcal 1020 kcal
Fitness
 normally 4.00 kcal 1.81 kcal 240 kcal
heavily 9.00 kcal 4.08 kcal 540 kcal
 
 

Calculation energy usage

 
 
See also Energy usage by sport (tip)

The energy usage to run a distance is independent of the runningspeed
In kilograms and kilometers
How larger the effort how the larger the energy usage will be. But pays attention to: who runs with a speed of for example 15 km/h uses in that hour 15.0 kcal by kilo body weight. Someone of 60 kg has for running 15 km: 900 kcal (1 hour x 15.0 kcal x 60 kg) necessary.
If someone run 10 km/h he/she consumes per hour 10 kcal by kilo body weight. This runner weighs also 60 kg. For running 15 km costs then 1.5 hour x 10 kcal x 60 kg: also 900 kcal. consume. Running a distance costs therefore always same to quantity energy, independently of the speed with which that happens. However at walking the total energy usage is something less, because at walk more efficiently with energy.
In pounds and miles
How larger the effort how the larger the energy usage will be. But pays attention to: who runs with a speed of for example 10 miles/h uses in that hour 7.40 kcal by pound body weight. Someone of 130 pound has for running 10 miles: 962 kcal (1 hour x 7.40 kcal x 132 pound) necessary. If someone run 5 miles/u  he/she consumes per hour 3.70 kcal by pound body weight. This runner weighs also 132 pound. For running 10 miles costs then 2 hour x 3.70 kcal x 130 pound: also 962 kcal. consume. Running a distance costs therefore always same to quantity energy, independently of the speed with which that happens. However at walking the total energy usage is something less, because at walk more efficiently with energy.
 
 

Energy usage per day

 
 
The number of calories that has burned per day dependently on age, line, weight and the physical activities which you undertakes. The total calorie combustion per day exists from the rest metabolic (BMR) plus energy which is necessary for all your occupations. The total energy usage is equal to BMR * PAL. The (P)hysical (A)ctivity (L)evel are a value (between 1.2 and 2,2) that the level of the physical activity of someone indicates. Regularly active you are if move during your work regularly (e.g. salesmen) and a couple time per week sports. Light actives are most people. See also Calculation calorie usage per day (tip).

Table rest metabolic (BMR)
 

  Age BMR (kcal/day)
Men 18-29 15.3  * weight + 679
30-59 11.6  * weight + 879
60-74 11.9  * weight + 700
75 >  8.4  * weight + 820
Women 18-29 14.7 * weight + 496
30-59  8.7  * weight + 829
60-74 9.2  * weight + 688
75 > 9.8  * weight + 624


Calorie usage tables

Below as an example two usage tables for people with a normal weight.

Lift actively

   
     

Man

 

Woman

Age

Calories

Joules

18-29

2825

11900

30-59

2700

11400

60-74

2450

10400

75 and older

2250

  9400

 

Age

Calories

Joules

 18-29

2200

9200
 30-59

2150

9000
 60-74 1950 8200
 75 and older 1900 8050
     
     

Regularly active

   
     

Man

 

Woman

Age

Calorie

Joules

18-29

3250

13700

30-59

3100

13000

60-74

2850

11900

75 and older

2600

10800

 

Age

Calories

Joules

18-29

2300

9700

30-59

2250

9400

60-74

2050

8700

75 and older

2025

8500

 
 

Energy value

 
 
How many calories provide one gram. These data you need at calculations mentioned below.
 
Energy value

Carbohydrates

4 kcal

Proteins

4 kcal

Alcohol

7 kcal

Fat

9 kcal

Composing total energy need of a day
See also: Nutritional charts.

Example 1
Below a example of required carbohydrates (60%), proteins (15%) and fats (25%) for someone who use per day 3000  kcal.

 25% fats  750 kcal are 83 gr. (750:9)
 60% carbohydrates  1800 kcal are 450 gr. (1800:4)
 15%  proteins  450 kcal are 112 gr. (450: 4)


  Fats Carbohydrates Proteins
8 slices of bread 6 100 20
8 butter for bread 20    
6 sweetens for bread   90  
2 cheese for  bread 25 1 21
2 goblet milk 6 20 14
       
Flesh 100g 15   20
Potatoes 300g   45 6
Vegetable 200g 1 10 8
Yoghourt   10 11
       
2 Apples   15 4
Orange   10  
Raisins 100g   65 2
Various 10 84 6
       
Total 83 gr. 45 gr. 112 gr.


Example 2
 
Someone of 60 kg (or 132 lbs) need one a day 3500 kcal.
25% fats and 2 grams. proteins by kilo body weight.
25% of 3500 kcal is 875 kcal. Divided by 9 is 97 gr.
2 x 60 kg is 120 gr. proteins. That is 120 x 4 is 480 kcal.
Carbohydrates: 3500 - 875 - 480 is 2145 kcal.
That is 2145 kcal divided by 4 is 536 gr. carbohydrates.


Summarised:
536 gr. carbohydrates
120 gr. proteins
97 gr. fats

Observation
It is very cumbersome to get the correct proportions. Tip: calculates the composition of your food on an average day. You have then overall picture how sits with the number of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
 
 

Energy supply by liter oxygen

 
 
The energy sources are carbohydrates (one gram provides 4 kcal), fats (9 kcal), proteins (4 kcal) and alcohol (7 kcal). To burn energy there is oxygen necessary. Carbohydrates provide most of the energy by liter oxygen, namely 5 kcal. Fats provide 4.7 kcal  and proteins 4.5 kcal It is now also clear why during the marathon after the 30km point you run more slowly : carbohydrates have been consumed, there mainly fat combustion takes place.
During sleep we obtain our energy for 90% from fat. During ordinary physical activities is that 60-70% and the rest from carbohydrates. At light sport activities the usage decreases up to 50%. At intensive sports training to 20-30%. At very intensive sports training the proportion of carbohydrate combustion has decreased to 100%.
 

Some tips

 
   
Vitamin C promotes the prerecording of most of the trace elements.
   
Coffee, tea and most of softdrinks (particularly cola) slow down the prerecording of trace elements. For this reason do not use these spirits at or shortly after the meals.
   
Also milk slows down the prerecording of iron.
   
Cooked vegetable is healthier than raw.
   
Raisins contain particularly many carbohydrates and also fibres, iron and potassium.
   
Carbohydrates are with water the most important feeding substances for endurance sportsmen and sportswomen sportsmen.
   
After a considerable effort have you the first hours approximately 125 gr. carbohydrates necessary. A beer has not been arranged for that: it contains only 8 gr. Moreover alcohol accelerates the issuing of urine what more liquid loss meant.
   
Cafeine stimulates the fat combustion.
   
Calories or joules: 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ
   
A good convalescence drink: 70% eggs and 30% milks or 50% milks and 50% potatoes.
   
Carbohydrates are converted into fats when the offer is larger than the body in the muscles and liver can store.
   
Too much proteins  is converted into carbohydrates and fats.
   
Fish, poultry and vegetable proteins sources contain much less saturated acids than other  proteins sources.
   
Milk and milk products provide nearly all amino acids which we have necessary.
   
At evening training it is better for the recovery to eat for sports something light and after the training the warm meal.
   
Flesh contains by 100 gr. 2 up to 7 milligram iron. In contrast to vegetable products at flesh rather much iron (up to 30%) is taken by the body.
   
Carbohydrates are connections of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
   
You measure weight always on approximately the same time: the bests after standing up.

 

 

 

 

 

Start: February 2005 Last modified: 13 april 2013