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Minerals

 

 

 

Twenty-two minerals such as iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium and zinc are indispensable for the functioning and building of our body. The total weight is approximately five per cent (that is about 2-3 kg (or 4.4-6.6 lbs) of the body weight.
Someone of  70 kg (or 154 lbs) has approximately 4 gram. Iron. Zinc 2 gram. Magnesium 25 gram. Calcium 1.5 kg (or 3.3 lbs). Iodine 20 milligram.  Copper 100 milligram. They are even indispensable as vitamins. The body can produce none of these substances themselves. The minerals of which less than 1 gram in the body present are be called spore elements. Some examples of spore elements are: copper, zinc, cobalt, fluorine and iodine. Because minerals are builds more simply they are better tenable then vitamins. Most of the minerals assist the enzymes, which control the metabolic. Minerals cooperate with vitamins. These must be in the correct proportion present to reach optimum impact. At sportsmen is the need for iron, magnesium and zinc is larger, because by perspiring and by unchoking much lost. Iron plays an important role at the transport of oxygen. For these reason sportsmen and sportswomen prevent that iron shortage arise. Magnesium plays an essential role at duration performances. For the muscles it is important in order to the muscle contraction and energy metabolic. Zinc is essential for the immune system. Zinc has also a share in the energy metabolic. Long distance runners who have frequently trouble with colds, have often zinc shortage.

 

Calcium

 

Chlorine

 

 

 

Chromium

 

Phosphorus

 

 

 

Fluorine

 

Iodine

 

 

 

Copper

 

Magnesium

 

 

 

Mangaan

 

Molybdenum

 

 

 

Sodium

 

Selenium

 

 

 

Iron

 

Zinc

 

 

 

Summary

 


Calcium (Ca) 
Is found in: milk, yoghourt, cheese, flesh, green vegetables (particularly broccoli), fruit. beans, peanuts and walnuts. 

With phosphorus it is important for the building and conservation of strong bones and teeth. Furthermore it helps with magnesium the nerve system, especially for the conduction of nerve impulses. Per year approximately 20% of the total quantity calcium in the body (1000 up to 1500 gram.) are replaced.

Recommended quantity per day: 1 gram.

Shortage: broken bones by decalcification of the bones (osteoporosis), convulsion, restlessness and insomnia.
 


Chlorine 
Is generally sufficient by means of salt (sodium hydrochloride).



Chromium (Cr) 
Is found in:
liver, flesh, cheese, vegetables, whole-wheat bread, grains, fruit, notes and beer!

Is necessary for an optimum activity of the hormone insulin and therefore of large importance for the energy metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and proteins. Therefore sportsmen and sportswomen have a raised need.

Recommended quantity per day: 0.1-0.2 milligram at heavy training temporarily more.



Phosphorus 
Is necessary for the boneses and teethings. Component of ATP. For this reason phosphorus is essential at the combustion of glycogen and fat acids.

Recommended quantity per day: 1 to 2 gram. per day. The chance on a shortage is very small.



Fluorine 
Is found in:
fluoride keeping drinking water, sea fish and tea.

Necessary for: bones and teeth. Since the drinking water has been fluoridated the number of decay has been decreased with 50% .

Recommended quantity per day: sufficiently in fluoride keeping drinking water.



Iodine (I) 
Is found in:
exclusively in seafood (fish, mussels and shrimps and whose).

Iodine is necessary for the production of the thyroid gland hormones. By means of the thyroid gland influences iodine the metabolic and the increase.

Recommended quantity per day: the need for the sportsmen and sportswomen is minimum 0.2 milligram. Advise: two times per week fish.

Shortage: restlessness, slowed down, metabolic and weight increase.



Copper (Cu) 
Is found in:
whole-wheat products, flesh/fish, raisins, fruit and pod fruit.

It has been involved in processes, which are important for the sportsmen and sportswomen: iron prerecording, energy production and anti-oxydanten system. Also necessary for the functioning of vitamin C.

Recommended quantity per day: 2 milligram. The body gets down generally sufficient copper.

Too short: anaemia, weakness, disturbed breathing and skin complaints.

Too much: is keep in the body (among other things liver) and is detrimental.



Magnesium (Mg) 
Is found in:
soya broad beans (to contain it most of the magnesium), seeds, notes, whole grain, glutinous rice, green vegetables, banana, apples, flesh and fish.

Is necessary for the shaping of ATP and is therefore indispensable at the energy metabolism. Is essential for numerous enzymes, the functioning of the vitamins B1 and B6. It is indispensable for the contraction of muscle cells.

Recommended quantity per day: 300 milligram. Sportsmen and sportswomen: 400 up to 600 milligram. More needed by physical and mental effort. Also feeding which contains many proteins and fat raises the need. The body contains between 20 and the 35 gram.

Lack is possible led to hypersensitive muscles (muscle cramp), fatigue, nervousness, depression, sleep impairments and trembling hands. A large percentage of the sportsmen and sportswomen have shortage to magnesium.

Calcium and magnesium complete each other in their functioning. In the body they must be present in a correct proportion. Ideal is a proportion between 5:1 and 10.1. Calcium/magnesium ratio is frequently in our daily feeding too high.
 


Mangaan (Mn) 
Is found in:
whole wheat, green vegetables, pod fruit, notes, pineapple, cereals and tea.

Is important for a large number of enzymes.

Recommended quantity per day: 3-5 milligram.

Shortages can lead to lack of muscle tension and muscle coordination, an increased blood sugar quality by insufficient combustion of sugars, a deterioration of the energy metabolism.



Molybdenum 
Is found in:
grains, green vegetables and cereals.

Especially after a heavy training or race put it it has been involved in the disposal of waste products. It is important for a good iron household.

The daily need amounts to 0.2-0.5 milligram. The stock in the body is small, only 5 milligram.



Sodium (Na) 
Is found in: kitchen salt.

Necessary for the maintenance of osmotic the value of blood and body fluid.

Recommended quantity per day:
1 gram. Generally the body gets more than sufficiently by means of normal feeding.

Shortage: giddiness, low blood pressure and weakness feeling.

Too much: at good functioning kidneys excess is secreted.



Selenium (Se) 
Is found in: beer leaven, fish, flesh, full grains, notes and seeds, vegetables and cereals.

Selenium and vitamin E work strongly together. These two substances cooperate both much more strongly than separately of each other. It is just like vitamin E antioxidant. It helps to slow down the ageing process. It raises the secrete of heavy metal as cadmium, lead and mercury. Selenium stimulates the body-own immune system.

Recommended quantity per day: 0.2 milligram.

Shortages can possible give heart - and vascular problems, rheum, and several cancer forms.



Iron (Fe) 
Is found in:
  liver, (dark) green vegetables (among other things spinach), whole-wheat products, flesh, poultry, fish and mussels.

In our body is approximately 4 gram iron present. Iron is necessary for haemoglobin in the red blood cells, that the oxygen transports. It is also a component of enzymes, which ensure the combustion of energy. Ensures a healthy skin color. At lack the oxygen prerecording and energy household gone less well. This goes at the cost of the performance capacity. It is therefore for sportsmen and sportswomen important to get down sufficient iron. Only 10% of iron are eventually incorporated in food by the body. In our daily feeding are approximately 15 milligram iron present. That meant that per day 1-milligram iron is taken. This is exactly sufficient. Indication of shortage iron: heavy legs, faster fatigue, giddiness and badly sleep. The take in of iron is very strongly reduced by cafeine in coffee and tea. On the other hand vitamin C influences the take in very favourable.

Recommended quantity per day: 15 milligram. Only 10% of iron what is taken will be used.

Shortage: much at sportsmen and sportswomen. Can lead on the long duration to anaemia. A lowering of the haemoglobin quality of blood, as a result of which the fabrics are no longer largely provided with oxygen and their faster lactic acid shaping in the muscles takes place. Especially duration  have extra iron necessary. For the take in of iron are vitamin C, foliumacid, vitamin B12, Copper and/or vitamin A necessary. Especially vitamin C promotes the take in of iron from feeding. Coffee and tea slow down the take in.

Too much: is stored in the liver and spleen. Normal the body has a iron reserve of approximately four gram. More is detrimental for the body.



Zinc (Zn) 
Is found in:
flesh, fish, chicken, whole-wheat bread, potatoes and muesli.

Our body has in sum approximately 2 gram zinc. It has been involved in many responses in the body; many enzymes and hormones depend on. Zinc is essential for the defence system, the functioning of insulin and vitamin A. It has therefore a share in the energy metabolism. Zinc is part of the enzyme SOD that protects against radicals. Zinc has been involved directly in the increase, the wound healing and the production of sperm.

Recommended quantity per day: 15 milligram. Zinc goes easily lost at the preparing of food. In contrast to magnesium we can get sufficiently down by means of a zinc supplement.  Take a supplement that the daily need does not exceed. Take into account also that looy acid (in coffee and tea) can obstruct absorption.

Shortage: reduce the production of testosteron, and can lead to skin - and mucous membrane deviations, fatigue,  impotence and white blobs on the finger nails. Frequent use of iron supplements (confessed at sportsmen) can the take in of zinc deteriorate. The zinc separation has been raised at intensive sports.



Summary 

Mineral Function Recommended quantity per day
Calcium Strong skeleton and teeth 1 gram.
Chromium Energy metabolism of carbohydrates,
fats and proteins.
01.-0.2 milligram
Phosphorus Is necessary for the skeleton and teeth.
Component of ATP.
1 to 2 gram.
The chance on a shortage is
very small.
Fluorine Bones and teeth. Sufficiently fluoride  in drinking water.
Iodine Necessary for the production of the thyroid gland hormones. For the sportsmen and sportswomen minimum 0.2 milligram.
Copper  Iron prerecording, energy production and
anti-oxydanten system.
2 milligram.
The body gets down generally sufficient.
Magnesium Necessary at a lot of processes. Sportsmen:
400 up to 600 milligram.
Mangaan Is important for a large number of enzymes. 3-5 milligram
Molybdenum Disposal of waste products. Iron household. 0.2-0.5 milligram.
Sodium Osmotic the value of blood and body fluid. 1 gram.
Selenium  Stimulates immune system.
It helps to slow down the ageing process.
0.2 milligram.
Iron Oxygen transport. 15 milligram.
Zinc Many processes in the body. 15 milligram.

 

 

 
 

 

Start: February 2005 Last modified: 13 april 2013